Week in Review: Oct 5-9 (edited)

Welcome to another Freaky Friday! For real this time. Apologies for the “it’s Thursday guys, not actually Friday” OJD blog email. This spooky season is giving OJD a run for it’s money! Where are the Ghostbusters when you need them? Keep reading for updated information & resources!

Important Fee App Information

There has been an increase in fee apps that have had errors in filing and causing delay in payment. We have gathered some information and created a memo to both Public Defenders and PAC to ensure accurate and timely filing for your fee apps, including which forms to file per your title and what to double check. Please see this memo for further instructions and feel free to download and print for your reference.

Tip of the Week

Procedures for a probable cause hearing in juvenile court are similar to those in adult court.  However, N.C.G.S. §7B-2202(c) mandates that the State shall show probable cause “by non-hearsay evidence or evidence that satisfies an exception to the hearsay rule.”  The State must present actual witnesses at the hearing in order to demonstrate each element of the felony offense.  Reiteration by law enforcement of third-party testimony acquired during the investigation does not satisfy this requirement.  There are exceptions for some reports and evidence regarding value, ownership, possession but remember that those exceptions do not apply at the adjudicatory hearing.

Announcements!

October CLE – Probation Violations & Post-Supervision

Thursday, October 29 from 2:30-3:30 PM, OJD brings Mary Stansell to the training floor. The webinar will cover the law on probation violations and post release supervision in delinquency court. It will address ongoing detention hearings as well as violations of probation and post release supervision. Commitment extensions, motions for review, and expunctions will also be covered. This CLE will be free to the first 35 registrants and CLE is currently pending approval. Please join us for a fresh new topic, great strategy and a few tips. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO REGISTER.

New Report: Youth Justice Under the Coronavirus

The Sentencing Project released its new report, Youth Justice Under the Coronavirus: Linking Public Health Protections to the Movement for Youth Decarceration. Summarizing lessons learned through the first months of the pandemic, and bringing focus to system responses to slow the virus’s spread to protect the safety and wellbeing of youth in the juvenile justice system. To read this report, click here.

Virtual Townhall – APA

Wednesday October 21, 2020 at 8:00 pm (EST), the American Psychiatric Association Foundation is offering a virtual town hall with featured panelists: Anish Ranjan Dube, M.D., MPH, FAPA; Sarah Vinson, M.D., and Randee Waldman, J.D. During this virtual town hall, adult, child & adolescent, and forensic psychiatry leaders, along with a Juvenile Justice legal expert, will participate in a discussion about what disruptive behaviors in youth mean, how to approach those behaviors as parents, school staff, and adults in communities, and how it relates to the School-to-Prison Pipeline. Click here to register.

Diversion Reform – NJDC Provided Resource

The Urban Institute recently released a report Assessing Juvenile Diversions in Kentucky. The report and a summary of key findings and talking points are attached. We hope these resources will be helpful for those of you who are working on expanding diversion and for arguments about stemming system involvement. Please see below for a list of resources.

“From a Lawyer’s View” Wants YOU to Be a Guest Blogger

LaTobia is looking for guest bloggers to contribute to our new series, “From a Lawyer’s View”. Defenders and those in juvenile justice are welcome to write in on topics of their expertise: secure custody, mental health in juveniles, etc! We want to hear from you! We’ll take your tips and blog posts! Reach out to LaTobia here for more information.

Week in Review: Sept 28-Oct 2

New month, same Week in Review. Happy Friday readers! We have a brand new tip for you today, an important Fee App memo and then it’s off to the races! Enjoy!

Important Fee App Information

There has been an increase in fee apps that have had errors in filing and causing delay in payment. We have gathered some information and created a memo to both Public Defenders and PAC to ensure accurate and timely filing for your fee apps, including which forms to file per your title and what to double check. Please see this memo for further instructions and feel free to download and print for your reference.

Tip of the Week

Venue – by Assistant Juvenile Defender, Terri Johnson

7B-1800 provides that adjudication shall take place in the county where the offense was alleged to have occurred.  If the juvenile is in residential treatment or foster care in that district, disposition shall occur there as well unless the court finds that transfer would “serve the ends of justice or is in the best interests of the juvenile.” 

Subsection (b) provides that the court may transfer disposition to the juvenile’s county of residence.  If the Court does not transfer disposition, it must notify the chief district court judge in the district where the juvenile resides and shall transfer the matter if the chief district court judge requests it.  If the court does not exercise its discretion to transfer a matter to the juvenile’s county of residence under 7B-1800(b)(1) or (b)(2), the court shall advise the juvenile of his/her right to transfer under 7B-1803(b)(3)If the juvenile requests transfer to his/her county of residence, the court shall transfer the matter to district where the juvenile resides for disposition.

Defenders should be aware of 7B-1800 and utilize venue where appropriate for both adjudication and disposition.  Utilize motions to dismiss for improper venue prior to or during adjudication hearings.  Additionally, the statute may be utilized for disposition to benefit a juvenile.  Remember different counties may have different policies and transfer or retention of disposition should be considered by counsel carefully.

Counsel with cases where venue may be an issue may contact OJD for assistance connecting with attorneys in other counties to collaborate on those matters.

SAVE THE DATE!

Our October CLE will be October 29, 2020 from 2:30-3:30. The topic is Probation Violations & Post Supervision and will be presented by Mary Stansell, Juvenile Chief, Wake County Public Defender Office. Be on the look out for your official registration link. As always, this CLE will be free to the first 35 registrants. CLE is currently pending. Hope to see you there!

And lastly…

THANK YOU TO EVERYONE WHO ATTENDED OUR SEPTEMBER CLE “DEFENDING CHILDREN FROM ICE”!

We hope to see you face to face soon with trainings and CLEs and appreciate your constant support and registration every month!

From a Lawyer’s View: Resolution of complaints against Guilford and Vance County school systems

Resolution of complaints against Guilford and Vance County school systems means better services for incarcerated students with disabilities

By Tessa Hale, Staff Attorney at Legal Aid of North Carolina’s statewide education justice project, Advocates for Children’s Services.

The first time I visited my client at Vance County Jail, an adult facility, I asked him what he did to fill his time.  He told me that he did push-ups.  He was just 17 years old at that time.  As his education attorney, I knew that as a student who had long ago been identified as needing special education, he was entitled to an education provided by the local school district.  His mother had alerted us to the fact that as he sat in jail, he had not been receiving any educational services whatsoever.  At that time, this client’s case was one of three in our office in which the client had received no educational services while incarcerated in adult jail.  The other two had been incarcerated in Guilford County.  Our education team at Legal Aid decided to file two systemic state complaints on May 29, 2020 with the Department of Public Instruction.

We are proud to announce that the systemic state complaints Legal Aid of North Carolina filed against Guilford County Schools and Vance County Schools have recently been resolved.  The Guilford County Schools complaint was resolved via confidential agreement. The Vance County complaint was resolved following an investigation by the N.C. Department of Public Instruction. More information, including links to documents, follows. 

Guilford County

Legal Aid was pleased with the opportunity to work with Guilford County Schools (GCS) to advance policies and procedures, some of which were already underway by the district, that will enable GCS to improve services for incarcerated students with disabilities by:

  • Reviewing and revising current procedures to require that all GCS students with disabilities incarcerated in any Guilford County jail receive appropriate special educational services;
  • Designating an employee to be responsible for ensuring legally compliant special educational services for students incarcerated in local jails for more than ten school days as well as continuity of educational services when the students exit from local jails;
  • Training special education staff regarding appropriate special educational services for incarcerated students; and
  • Conducting an internal audit for the 2019-2020 school year to determine whether special education services and related safeguards were properly afforded to GCS students with disabilities who were incarcerated in local jails for more than 10 school days and had an Individualized Education Program (IEP) during incarceration.

Learn more

Vance County

The N.C. Department of Public Instruction’s investigation into our complaint uncovered widespread violations of the rights of incarcerated students with disabilities in Vance County Schools (VCS). The department has mandated VCS to follow a corrective action plan, which includes:

  • Various trainings for staff, not only regarding incarcerated students but also concerning other general procedural requirements for students with disabilities;
  • Development of procedures to serve students incarcerated in the local jail;
  • Compensatory education for the named student in the complaint; and
  • Identification of eligible students who were incarcerated with the named complainant and did not receive appropriate services, for the purposes of providing them with compensatory education.

Learn more

The resolution of these complaints comes at a time when the population of youth incarcerated in adult jails has shrunk significantly. As a result of a new state law that went into effect on August 1, 2020, no more minors will be held in adult jail. Still, because the right to special education continues for students who are 18 to 21 and have not yet graduated, the developments in both the GCS and VCS resolutions will help ensure that eligible incarcerated students at all stages receive the special education services they are entitled to. Further, some students who may be identified through audits and who were improperly served before the law was passed will now be entitled to remedies.

Week in Review: Sept 14-18

Readers! Have we been the only ones looking forward to Friday? We can’t be. So let’s get your weekend started with a fresh blog and a couple slices of information pizza (yeah….we’d rather have a large NY Pepperoni too!)

Heads Up!

OJD is working from home and voicemail’s are checked every other day. For the fastest reply and communication, please send us an email. Email’s can be found HERE on our contact page, if you need. THANKS!

TIP OF THE WEEK – Brought to you by Raise the Age

Where Can I Find the Law on RTA?

If you want to see the Session Laws which include the Raise the Age changes, see:

Senate Bill 413: 2019 Session Amendments to the RTA Bill (Juvenile Justice Reinvestment Act)

Senate Bill 257: The final bill budget for Session Law 2017; info pertaining to the Juvenile Justice Reinvestment Act can be found on pages 309-325

You can also check out the NC General Assembly website.  Look under “Bills and Laws,” then “General Statutes.”  You can search by citation or test, or you can look at Chapter 7B under the Table of Contents, and see the most recent changes to statute text on the right side of the statute.

HAVE YOU REGISTERED YET?

Friday September 25, 2020, 2:30-3:30 PM OJD is hosting “Defend Children From ICE.” Presented by Helen Parsonage, Board Certified Immigration Specialist and FREE to the first 35 DEFENDERS who register. Discussing the topic of children and immigration, strategies in your defense and other great information, You DON’T want to miss this training. Register herePLEASE PUT YOUR BAR NUMBER IN THE JOB FIELD BOX.

Symposium: The Roles of Prosecutor and Public Defender in Criminal Justice Reform

October 2, 2020 from 10:00AM-3:00PM (EST). This will be a virtual symposium presented by the North Carolina Commission on Racial and Ethnic Disparities (NC CRED) in collaboration with the National Consortium on Racial and Ethnic Fairness in the Courts. The Keynote Speaker is Jonathan Rapping, Founder and President, Gideon’s Promise, Atlanta and will also feature presentations from prosecutors and defenders from across the country and of course, North Carolina. You can see a list of speakers and topics, by clicking HERE. To register, click HERE. Thank you!

A Bit of Information Pizza…

The School of Government has issued a new bulletin on Indigent Defense practice during COVID-19. The principal author Ian Mance, is the COVID-19 Resource Attorney in the public defense education group at UNC. Here is the link: https://www.sog.unc.edu/publications/bulletins/indigent-defense-attorneys-and-covid-19-faqs-about-practicing-during-pandemic

Click HERE for a link to an earlier bulletin by Ian about possible grounds for securing release of inmates during COVID-19

For additional resources, please see the COVID-19 Tool Kit on the School of Government Public Defense Education website.

As always, thanks for all that you do for our youth, communities and neighbors. Have a safe, socially distanced weekend, enjoy the upcoming Fall and we will see you next week.

Week in Review: Sept 7-11

Happy Friday Readers! Another week down in 2020 and we’re still all trying to figure it out. But no worries, OJD is here to help along the way. Before we get started, we take a moment to recognize the importance of today, and remember those lives lost and the heroes from September 11, 2001.

Tip of the Week – Prior Record Level Matters

If your client’s prior record places him/her in a position for the judge to enter a level 1 OR 2 dispositional level, ALWAYS argue for a level 1 disposition.  You can find a copy of the disposition chart here.  Make sure to check the final written order for accuracy.

Who could turn down free learning? CLE OFFER!

Friday September 25, 2020, 2:30-3:30 PM OJD is hosting “Defend Children From ICE.” Presented by Helen Parsonage, Board Certified Immigration Specialist and FREE to the first 35 DEFENDERS who register. Discussing the topic of children and immigration, strategies in your defense and other great information, You DON’T want to miss this training. Register herePLEASE PUT YOUR BAR NUMBER IN THE JOB FIELD BOX.

Symposium: The Roles of Prosecutor and Public Defender in Criminal Justice Reform

October 2, 2020 from 10:00AM-3:00PM (EST). This will be a virtual symposium presented by the North Carolina Commission on Racial and Ethnic Disparities (NC CRED) in collaboration with the National Consortium on Racial and Ethnic Fairness in the Courts. The Keynote Speaker is Jonathan Rapping, Founder and President, Gideon’s Promise, Atlanta and will also feature presentations from prosecutors and defenders from across the country and of course, North Carolina. You can see a list of speakers and topics, by clicking HERE. To register, click HERE. Thank you!

“A Lawyer’s View” Needs an October Submission

LaTobia is looking for guest bloggers to contribute to our Week in Review. Defenders and those in juvenile justice are welcome to write in on topics of their expertise: secure custody, mental health in juveniles, etc! We want to hear from you! There’s plenty more weeks left in the year! Reach out to LaTobia here for more information.

Week in Review: Aug 31-Sept 4

Hello September! Who else is ready for sweater weather? Fall is approaching and all we can think about is hot coffee and comfy socks, of course while we continue working :D.

Tip of the Week – What’s an Alford Plea?

A plea under State v. Alford is where an accused will admit to responsibility in court, not because they believe they are guilty, but because they believe it is in their best legal interest to do so.  While Alford is not explicitly afforded in the Juvenile Code, the Court of Appeals upheld an Alford plea, In re C.L. (2011).  Defenders should remember to explain to clients that an Alford plea has the same impacts and consequences as a standard admission.

Defenders, Register for our September CLE!

Friday September 25, 2020, 2:30-3:30 PM OJD is hosting “Defend Children From ICE.” Presented by Helen Parsonage, Board Certified Immigration Specialist and FREE to the first 35 DEFENDERS who register. Discussing the topic of children and immigration, strategies in your defense and other great information, you DON’T want to miss this training. Who could turn down free learning? Register herePLEASE PUT YOUR BAR NUMBER IN THE JOB FIELD BOX.

Racial Justice for Youth Toolkit

From the National Juvenile Defender Center, the “Racial Justice for Youth: A Toolkit for Defenders empowers juvenile defenders with the training, resources, and information to fight the over-policing, over-criminalization, and school exclusion of youth of color.

Through the Toolkit, we hope to inspire juvenile defenders to view racial justice advocacy as an integral and essential component of their youth advocacy.”

Please take a moment to sign up for the toolkit. Click here to sign up for a Racial Justice Defender Toolkit account for access to member-only resources that may not be available to the public. In doing so, you are helping to continuously advocate for racial justice throughout a youth’s case and help fight systemic racism in our courts.

HAVE A SAFE AND FUN (SOCIALLY-DISTANCED) LABOR DAY WEEKEND!

From a Lawyer’s View: The Importance of Creativity in the Representation of Juveniles at Disposition

Happy Friday Readers! No Week in Review this week, but please keep reading for our 2nd installment in our new series: “A Lawyer’s View.”

The Importance of Creativity in the Representation of Juveniles at Disposition: Advocating for Alternative Dispositions

Dispositional hearings often feel a bit like the players are on the scene of the Bill Murray movie “Ground Hog Day.” The juvenile court counselor presents his or her recommendations to the court. The attorney has no questions but desires to be heard. The attorney says a few nice things about his or her client. The Court makes findings, and then adopts the recommendations of the court counselor. This scene is repeated regularly every day in delinquency court.

Although much of the time the recommendations of the juvenile court counselor are well-suited to address the juvenile’s rehabilitative and treatment needs, it is the duty of the juvenile’s attorney to make recommendations for alternative solutions when appropriate. Often, that necessitates a bit of creativity on the part of the attorney for the juvenile.

N.C.G.S. §7B-2506 provides a comprehensive list of dispositional alternatives available to the court for delinquent juveniles. These dispositional alternatives are affected by the dispositional limits for each class of offense and the delinquency history level of the juvenile. (See N.C.G.S. §7B-2506-2508)

The first step to making creative suggestions to the court regarding the dispositional alternatives is for a juvenile’s attorney to make themselves knowledgeable about the services available in their community. Attorneys who represent juveniles in delinquency cases should also get to know their clients, and the client’s parents in order to determine the juvenile’s rehabilitative and treatment needs.

Oftentimes, parents of the juvenile are well-equipped to ensure that the juvenile’s needs are being met. Attorneys should meet with their clients ahead of the scheduled court date and make inquiry of the parents regarding the needs of the juveniles, and what provisions can be made prior to the disposition to show the Court that the parents can meet these rehabilitative and treatment needs. Parents can arrange for therapy, substance abuse treatment, private community service, or any number of other services. Parents can implement in-home punishments such as a curfew, attend school regularly, remain on good behavior, not associate with anyone deemed inappropriate by the parent, or be at any place deemed inappropriate by the parent. These are typical conditions of a juvenile’s probation that do not necessarily require supervision by a juvenile court counselor. The juvenile’s attorney should prepare to inform the court regarding the conditions put in place by the juvenile’s parents, the parents’ plans for implementation, and provide examples of how the parents’ plans are being carried out in the home.

When an appropriate plan can be implemented by a juvenile’s parents, the juvenile’s attorney can ask the court to dismiss the disposition, or to place conditions on the juvenile under the parents’ supervision. Remember not all juveniles who are adjudicated delinquent require the supervision of a juvenile court counselor to address their rehabilitative and treatment needs. Attorneys should not rely on the juvenile court counselor’s court report to determine what those rehabilitative and treatment needs are. Attorneys should be prepared at disposition to advise the court regarding the needs of the juvenile and to make recommendations regarding the best way to address those needs.

Attorneys can get too comfortable with the “groundhog effect,” walking into court on the disposition court date, reading the recommendations of the juvenile court counselor, and not coming prepared to make their own recommendations. Oftentimes, this is because they assume that the judges are also on autopilot and reflexively adopt those recommendations. Judges look to the juvenile court counselor, the assistant district attorney, and the attorney for the juvenile to inform them of the juvenile’s rehabilitative and treatment needs and to make suggestions tailored to address these needs. Taking a little time to educate yourself about resources available in the community and to inform yourself about the needs of the client will assist you with becoming more creative in your suggestions to the court, and in achieving a better outcome for your client.

Written by: Honorable Christine Underwood. Judge Underwood presides over district court in Judicial District 22A, which includes Alexander and Iredell counties. She has been on the bench since January 2009. Before that, Judge Underwood was in private practice. She held a contract with the State of North Carolina to represent juveniles in delinquency court. Her other areas of practice included parent representation in Abuse/Neglect/Dependency court, criminal law, and family law. She graduated with a Bachelor of Science from Appalachian State University in 1994 and received her Juris Doctor from Campbell University’s Normal Adrian Wiggins School of Law in 2004.

Week in Review: July 27-31

Good morning readers! It’s the last week in July, can you believe it? Is time flying by or is it just us? Let’s start your weekend off with a new OJD blog.

Raise the Age Tip of the Week

How Do I Know the State Will be Seeking the Gang Enhancement Against My Juvenile?

Under current law, there is no process for notice to the juvenile and the juvenile’s attorney that the state is seeking the gang enhancement.  As the juvenile’s attorney, you should consider the following:

  • Get a copy of the gang assessment from DJJ prior to adjudication
  • Argue that the notice of gang enhancement be presented pre-adjudication
  • Develop a theory of defense against client’s involvement in gang activity
  • Prepare for a hearing on the issue
  • Request a hearing, similar to an adjudicatory hearing
  • Request the court make findings on the record and appeal where  appropriate

A Bit of Housekeeping!

OJD is working from home for now and if you need to reach us for a case consultation, upcoming training, or have a question about court? Don’t forget you can email us for a faster response! Click here for links to our email addresses.

Upcoming Events

August 7, 2020 from 3:00-4:00 PMJen Story, Tessa Hale, Mary Stansell are presenting a new CLE: Making the Connection- Education Advocacy and Juvenile Defense. Come to this session to learn the basics of special education laws and school-based intervention plans; how to issue-spot when students’ unaddressed needs in schools are exacerbating their behaviors; and how to incorporate this knowledge into your advocacy in a way that sets juveniles up for long-term success.  You can register for this CLE here and will be sent the meeting link information afterwards.

Thursday, August 13, 6:00-7:30 please join us for COVID-19: The State of Our Mental Health Part II. This session will focus on the mental health and issues younger adults and youth are facing due to this pandemic. Featuring Nikki Croteau-Johnson, MA, LPA, Clinical Program Director at NC Child Treatment Program and Dorothy Hairston-Mitchell, Clinical Associate Professor and Supervising Attorney for the Juvenile Law Clinic at NCCU. Please click here to register for the event. You will receive the Zoom link afterward registering.

Opportunity!

LaTobia is looking for guest bloggers to contribute to our Week in Review. Defenders and those in juvenile justice are welcome to write in on topics of their expertise: secure custody, mental health in juveniles, etc! We want to hear from you! There’s plenty more weeks left in the year! Reach out to LaTobia here for more information.

THAT’S ALL FOR JULY! HAVE A GREAT WEEKEND!

From a Lawyer’s View: Admissions and Use of Transcript of Admission by a Juvenile

Happy Friday Readers! No Week in Review this week, but please keep reading for our new series: “A Lawyer’s View.”

When may an admission by a juvenile be accepted?  Is a transcript of admission by a juvenile, Form AOC-J-410 required for adjudication?

AOC-J-410 and Legal Requirements

AOC provides numerous forms for use in court proceedings, some required and others not.  While a transcript of admission by a juvenile is not specifically required for adjudication, it is best practice to utilize the form. This form tracks the necessary language set out in the Juvenile Code, N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407.  Because only adult superior court, not district court, requires plea transcripts, it may be thought that in juvenile court, the transcript of admission is only utilized in felony cases.  It should be noted that 7B-2407 applies to both misdemeanors and felonies. 

N.C. General Statute § 7B-2407 establishes the criteria to determine when admissions by a juvenile may be accepted.  Subparagraph (a) requires the court to address the juvenile personally and inform the juvenile of the right to remain silent and that any statement the juvenile makes may be used against the juvenile; determine if the juvenile understands the nature of the charges; inform the juvenile of the right to deny the allegations in the petition; inform the juvenile that, by the juvenile’s admissions, the juvenile is waiving the right to be confronted by the witnesses against the juvenile; determine that the juvenile is satisfied with the juvenile’s attorney; and inform the juvenile of the most restrictive disposition.

Subparagraph (b) requires the court to inquire of the prosecutor, the juvenile’s attorney and the juvenile personally to determine whether there were prior discussions involving admissions, whether the parties have entered into any arrangements and, if so, the terms of any admission.  Further, the court is required to determine whether “any improper pressure was exerted.”  The statute specifically states, “The court may only accept an admission after determining that the admission is a product of informed choice.”

Subparagraph (c) requires the court to determine that there is a factual basis for the admission based upon any of the following: a statement of facts by the prosecutor, a written statement of the juvenile; sworn testimony which may include reliable hearsay; or a statement of facts by the juvenile’s attorney.

Form AOC-J-410, if followed closely, complies with the statutorily required inquiry of N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407.  While some districts, as a local practice, only utilize a transcript of admission for felonies, this can be problematic.  For example, if disposition is transferred to another county, newly appointed counsel on disposition should determine if the juvenile was properly advised at adjudication.  The juvenile may not know or remember being addressed by the presiding judge.  In the absence of a transcript of admission, counsel may need to obtain a copy of the recorded proceeding to determine if the proper inquiry was completed and whether the terms of the admission by the juvenile and the Court’s order are the same.  (Another AOC form provides the motion and order for obtaining the recording.  AOC-G-115.)

Caselaw

Failure to make the proper inquiry is reversible error.  Addressing each statutory prong of N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407 is mandatory.  In re T.E.F., 359 N.C. 570, 614 S.E.2d 296 (2005) establishes that the standard is not totality of the circumstances and failure to make one of the inquiries (in that case, whether the juvenile was satisfied with his counsel) is reversible error.  See also In re A.W., 182 N.C. App. 159, 641 S.E.2d 354 (2007) where both adjudication and disposition were reversed when there was no indication of informing the juvenile of his right to remain silent and that statements made could be used against him or that he had a right to deny the allegations; In re N.J., 221 N.C. App. 427, 728 S.E.2d 9 (2012) where an adjudication was reversed when the juvenile was not advised of the most restrictive disposition prior to accepting the admission; and In re Register, 84 N.C. App. 336, 352 S.E.2d 486 (1987), stating that it is impossible for a judge to determine that the admission is the product of informed choice without making the required inquiries of each child.  Counsel should note that the Court of Appeals has determined that 7B-2407 does not apply to probation violations.  In re D.J.M., 181 N.C. App. 126, 638 S.E.2d 610 (2007).

AOC-J-410 as a Helpful Tool

In addition to providing verification of the proper N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407 inquiry, AOC-J-410 provides counsel an opportunity to ensure that the juvenile understands the proceedings and can aid communication between counsel and the juvenile.  By asking questions about the juvenile’s level of education and any medications in a more formalized way, an attorney can gain additional information to aid in proper advocacy.  Counsel should consider keeping a copy of the transcript of admission for use during the adjudication.  This can be particularly useful for juveniles with Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) or for juveniles who are visual rather than auditory learners.  Reviewing a transcript of admission in advance will help prepare the juvenile for court and can decrease anxiety regarding court.  It may be the Court’s first opportunity to see and address the juvenile client, so preparation in advance is a necessity. 

Finally, should a matter be transferred to another county for disposition, the transcript of admission can provide useful information to counsel for disposition advocacy.  In addition to providing information regarding the juvenile’s educational level and whether the juvenile is taking any medications, form AOC-J-410 provides documentation of the terms of any arrangement regarding admissions.  Clerical errors on adjudication orders may be easily addressed with comparison to a transcript of admission.  A local practice that dictates that a transcript of admission only be utilized for felonies may increase the risk of errors in adjudication orders for misdemeanor offenses. 

Best Practice Based upon N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407

While use of a transcript of admission does require additional time in and out of court, best practice is to utilize AOC-J-410.  The Court may accept an admission by a juvenile only after addressing each of the criteria set out in N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407.  The statute applies equally to both misdemeanors and felonies, and failure to address even one of the criteria is reversible error.  Use of form AOC-J-410 in all cases ensures that the juvenile is properly advised pursuant to N.C. Gen. Stat. § 7B-2407, decreases the risk of errors in adjudication orders and aids in communication with the client and disposition advocacy.  If counsel is appointed in a juvenile matter for disposition following transfer from another county, counsel should carefully review the Court file and be prepared to obtain and review any recordings when a transcript of admission has not been utilized.  In cases where the proper statutory inquiry was not made, Counsel should advise the juvenile regarding entering notice of appeal.

Written by: Assistant Juvenile Defender Terri Johnson. Terris  graduated Cum Laude with a Bachelor of Science in Psychology from Duke University in 2000.  She received her Juris Doctor degree from UNC Chapel Hill School of Law in 2003, and was admitted to the North Carolina Bar in 2003.  Her practice areas included criminal law, family law and juvenile law and has focused on juvenile law as OJD’s Assistant Juvenile Defender in delinquency court in both Iredell and Alexander counties.

Week in Review: Dec 6-10

It’s the first week back from a long holiday break and OJD has been busy with all things #RaiseTheAge. Have a question or a case you could use some help on? Don’t hesistate to give us a call. We are here for you!

Januar January 2020 marks the 50th Anniversary of North Carolina’s Public Defender System. Take a look at Eric with North Carolina’s FIRST Public Defender, Wallace “Wally” C. Harrelson.

Raise the Age Tip of The Week

How Do I Know the State Will be Seeking the Gang Enhancement Against My Juvenile?

Under current law, there is no process for notice to the juvenile and the juvenile’s attorney that the state is seeking the gang enhancement.  As the juvenile’s attorney, you should consider the following:

  • Get a copy of the gang assessment from DJJ prior to adjudication
  • Argue that the notice of gang enhancement be presented pre-adjudication
  • Develop a theory of defense against client’s involvement in gang activity
  • Prepare for a hearing on the issue
  • Request a hearing, similar to an adjudicatory hearing
  • Request the court make findings on the record and appeal where  appropriate

Training!

Today Eric & Austine are traveling to Lenoir County for a Raise the Age and Juvenile Basics CLE. It’s from 1-4. See the flyer below!

2020 JTIP Summer Academy

The deadline for applications to the 2020 JTIP Summer Academy is fast approaching! Applications are due no later than January 12th, 2020, 11:59 PM EST.

*If you have already applied for the JTIP Summer Academy or you plan to submit an application, please contact Austine Long as soon as possible.

The National Juvenile Defender Center (NJDC) and Georgetown Law Juvenile Justice Initiative are excited be accepting applications for the 2020 Juvenile Training Immersion Program (JTIP) Summer Academy, which will be held in Washington, DC from May 31 – June 6, 2020.

For more information on how to apply visit https://njdc.info/our-work/jtip/jtip-summer-academy/ or see the attached application.

JOB OPPORTUNITY!

Disability Rights North Carolina (DRNC) is seeking a Staff Attorney for their Education Team with a Juvenile Justice and Race Equity Focus. The Staff Attorney will work to ensure equity in the education and criminal justice systems; represent students in special education, and school discrimination matters, including youth in juvenile detention facilities; train attorneys, advocates and other stakeholders; and participate in policy initiatives related to the school-to-prison pipeline.

Send a resume and detailed letter of interest explaining your qualifications and interest in the position to: virginia.fogg@disabilityrightsnc.org. Include Staff Attorney – Education in the subject line of the email. No phone calls please.

Exciting News!

OJD is preparing to record our first podcast of the year! Interested in being a guest? Email LaTobia for a reservation!