Week in Review: Apr 12-16

Welcome to the Weekend Readers! This week OJD was busy with meetings and discussions while also planning some new material to share with you all. We’d love to hear some of your thoughts, needs and wants to better assist you in your day to day work in Juvenile Justice. No idea is a bad one and you can contact anyone in the office!

TIP OF THE WEEK

When Should I Receive the Disposition Report? 

You should try to receive the disposition report prior to the dispositional hearing to review with your client.  If possible, try to get a copy of the report at least several days prior to the hearing.  While there is no statutory authority compelling the receipt from the intake counselor, there are local rules which suggest time periods.

Congratulations OJD!

With the completion of our OJJDP Grant that wrapped up March 31, 2021, OJD was able to produce multiple CLE trainings for our Defenders (while covering attendance costs), have a brand new website (coming soon), and created SEVEN Quick Guides for readily accessible facts & tips while in court (which were either hand delivered or mailed throughout the year). All of this would not have been possible without our AWESOME Project Attorney Austine Long. Austine has worked extremely hard to reshape how our grant would succeed during the unexpected change of pace when the office and our plans to travel, shut down due to Covid. She revamped our CLE curriculum and never stopped making sure we hit the mark. So thank you Austine, for everything you did and do for OJD!

Raise the MINIMUM Age

On March 25, 2021, the N.C. Senate passed a bill to raise the minimum age a youth can be petitioned for a crime. The age increase would move from the lowest in the United States at 6 years of age, to 10. One of the main highlights of Senate Bill 207 is that it sets up a child consultation process which would enforce that these youth that are referred to the justice system and are under 10 will need to meet with a court counselor to assess the appropriate resources that can assist with keeping the youth out of the court process. This aim is to ensure that the mental capacity of youth and the desire to keep children out of the system and help discover latent issues. Now that the Senate has passed the legislation, it is on it’s way to the House for further consideration before going to the Governor’s hands. If the bill is passed, it will go into effect on Dec. 1. What are your thoughts on this newly introduced / pending Bill?

JLWOP

Josh Rovner has written a great piece via the Sentencing Project regarding Juvenile LWOP. This brief report is filled with statistics, landmark cases and thoughts surrounding the end of JLWOP in the United States. To read this brief and learn more about the JLWOP reform requests, please click here.

Week in Review: March 22-26

Another Friday in the books and the last one of March! So let’s jump into our Week in Review.

TIP OF THE WEEK!

If you have a client being held on a secure custody order – remember it’s the STATE’s burden to prove to the court, by clear and convincing evidence, that the juvenile should remain in custody AND no less intrusive alternative will suffice (§7B-1906(d)).  That means it’s not the court counselor’s role!  Ask the court for less restrictive means, for example electronic monitoring or house arrest.  If the court finds that your client should remain in custody, the court is bound by the criteria in §7B-1903 and must make written findings of fact.

Thank you to David Andrews!

OJD would like to thank David Andrews for his presentation Wednesday afternoon on Challenging North Carolina’s Automatic Transfer Laws. The information he shared was not only helpful to our defenders, but sparked questions but also how to overcome challenges our defenders see daily. This was a highly participated CLE and we also can’t thank the attendees enough for making this a great training!

Something exciting is coming!

Not only is NCJUVENILEDEFENDER.COM getting a facelift, we’re also bringing you some new content. We’re now in the process of recording a few videos, containing information on juvenile issues, specialization, and all kinds of helpful nuggets that we know our defenders would like. Interested in filming one? Contact LaTobia.

With the new website, you will have to re-subscribe to our blog (and something special) so stay tuned for more information and our launch! Thanks for all that you do and helping us make this possible!

Community Events

On April 1 at 1:00pm ET, NACDL’s Fourth Amendment Center is presenting a free, CLE webinar titled, “Racist by Design: How Systemic Racism and Inherent Biases Manifest in Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Beyond”. This program will feature Rashida Richardson, Visiting Scholar at Rutgers Law School and Rutgers Institute for Information Policy and Law, Cathy O’Neil, author, mathematician, and founder of ORCAA, an algorithmic auditing company, and Cierra Robson, a doctoral student in the Sociology and Social Policy program at Harvard University and the Inaugural Associate Director of the Ida B. Wells JUST Data Lab at Princeton University. To register for this CLE and receive credit, please click here.

In honor of Second Chance Month this April, NACDL will host “Race + Criminal Legal System: Collateral Consequences,” a program aimed at unpacking the racially disparate and often-permanent consequences associated with criminal convictions. Tune in Tuesday, April 13th, at 4pm ET (1pm PT) with moderator, Cynthia Roseberry, Deputy Director for the National Policy Advocacy Department for the ACLU, and panelists Rob DeLeon, Vice President of Programs for The Fortune Society, David Singleton, Executive Director for the Ohio Justice & Policy Center, and Quintin Williams. Panelists will discuss the long-term impacts of criminal convictions, the specific harm that collateral consequences have caused to communities of color, and what it will take to meaningfully change this system. There will be time for audience questions at the end of the program.

Week in Review: Feb 22-26

Happy Friday Readers! We’ve conquered the last week of February and ready to start new challenges on Monday, March 1, right? Right! A Monday and first of the month? Please! Just a little humor to get us going but as always, here’s to your week in review.

Tip of the Week – Discovery

The Juvenile Code has similar discovery rules to those followed in adult criminal court.  Though Juvenile Court is in District Court, most jurisdictions understand that discovery transfer is a practice for both misdemeanors and felonies in Juvenile Court.  Even if there’s an “automatic discovery” rule in your jurisdiction, you should always file a motion  to receive discovery.  Note that the state may also file a reciprocal motion, which may impact your decision on presenting expert opinion testimony or reports.

Have you seen our FINAL #BlackHistoryMonth Spotlights?

Charlotte Dover (Left) & Aleta Ballard (Right)

This week we showcased two great attorneys and their work within the juvenile defense community. First up was Charlotte Dover on Tuesday and Aleta Ballard on Thursday via our Twitter and FaceBook pages. To catch up on their spotlights: You can see Charlotte’s spotlight here & Aleta’s spotlight here. We would like to thank all of our Spotlight Attorney’s for being so willing to participate and show us what #BlackHistoryMonth means to each one of them and the importance of equality in our juvenile justice system. We appreciate you!

And if you haven’t followed us on Twitter & FaceBook yet, click the links to do that too!

LGBTQ CLE: Representing LGBTQ Youth

OJD would like to thank Ames Simmons on his presentation for our Representing Youth CLE held on Wednesday. The class covered topics such as a LGBTQ 101, pronouns, identity, how to support and approach young LGBTQ members who may not know how they identify and how to advocate for them individually.

Eric Zogry for the NC Bar Blog

OJD’s Eric Zogry was a guest blogger for the NC Bar titled, “Reconsidering North Carolina’s Minimum Age of Jurisdiction. He speaks on the need to raise the minimum age of children that can be charged with a crime, citing committees and tasks forces that have worked to recommend what that age should be. To read Eric’s blog, click here.

Happy Weekend!

Week in Review: Feb 1-5

Happy Friday Readers! February is the shortest month in our calendar but what some like to call, “the real start to the new year, January is a test run.” February also brings Black History Month and we have some great shares coming your way this month, so keep an eye out on our socials!

ANNOUCEMENT

In a a week or two, OJD will be undergoing a bit of a makeover. Our website is getting a whole new look and feel to better fit the needs of a growing and changing audience. Please bear with us during that time and if you need anything, feel free to email or call and we will make sure you get your motions, forms, and tips. Thanks!

Tip of the Week

Transcript of Admission Tips 

Filling out a transcript of admission on any admission of a new offense is important for several reasons.  It memorializes the record of admission in writing if subject to an appeal.  Reviewing the transcript with your client helps your client better understand the admission and the rights s/he is asserting or waiving.  Make sure you complete the transcript with your client present and do so in a confidential space. Consider making a copy of the transcript to keep at the attorney table to help your client answer questions.  Stand with your client when the court asks your client the listed questions and be prepared to confer with your client if any issues arise.

Resources

Don’t forget about our guest blogs that have been posted recently. They contain some very important information alongside some extra tips to make our Defenders even better than they already are!

The Kitchen Sink: Written by David Andrews on challenging automatic transfers.

Yasi: Written by Kim Howes and discusses the new Youth Assessment tool and issues to be aware of.

Black History Month – Did You Know?

Juvenile girls, ages 14-17 held in detention. Source: Biography.com

As Defenders and Juvenile Justice advocates, we know that the voice of children can challenge and change the way we think and increase our desire to make the world a better place for them. This is not a new way of thinking and is evident throughout history and here is just one of many stories below:

On May 2, 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama is known as the Children’s Crusade or most notably called, “The Birmingham’s Children’s Crusade.” This was a series of non-violent demonstrations held by children aging from 5-17 and a result of the incarceration of Martin Luther King, Jr and his “Letter’s from a Birmingham Jail” among others detained during civil rights movements in Alabama. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights believed that if officers saw young children present, and trained them in non-violent tactics, but that was not the case. 100s of young children were arrested and detained and on the second day, the Commissioner of Public Safety ordered pepper spray to be used on the children, also hitting them with batons and threatening them with police dogs. Under the threat of harm, these children continued to protest the business segregation in Birmingham and lack of civil human rights they were receiving. By May 10, after national visibility and frustration, Birmingham city leaders agreed to desegregate businesses and free all the jailed children and adults from the demonstrations. In response to the Children’s Crusade, Dr. King said. “Even though we realized that involving teenagers and high-school students would bring down upon us a heavy fire of criticism, we felt that we needed this dramatic new dimension…Our fight, if won, would benefit people of all ages. But most of all we were inspired with a desire to give to our young a true sense of their own stake in freedom and justice. We believed they would have the courage to respond to our call.”

To read more about this historic event, please click here.

THANKS FOR READING!

HAVE A GREAT, SAFE, FUN, AND COZY WEEKEND!

Week in Review: Jan 25-29

Happy Friday Readers!! It feels like January is taking forever to move on into February but hey! We’ll take it. This week was pretty quiet so let’s recap some of what happened.

Tip of The Week

Suppression motions aren’t often used in the District Court setting (outside DWI cases), however juvenile court offers many opportunities for suppression.  The juvenile code outlines the procedure for filing a motion to suppress (§7B-2408.5) and it may be made either in writing before the adjudicatory hearing or orally during the hearing.  Consider whether or not your client’s statement or identifications may be subject to suppression.  Remember – “in custody” is an objective test!  The test is whether a “reasonable juvenile” in the position of the respondent would believe him/herself to be in custody OR that s/he had been deprived of freedom of action in some significant way, and is not based on the subjective intent of the interrogator or the perception of the person under questioning.  That means if your client is in the principal’s office and the SRO is standing in front of the door, would your client feel free to leave?

NC IDS Re-Appointments

During the IDS Commission’s quarterly meeting on January 22, 2021, IDS voted to re-appoint Rob Sharpe as the Capital Defender for the Office of the Capital Defender and our very own Eric Zogry as the Juvenile Defender. To read more about these great public servants and their roles, click here.

THANK YOU!

Big thanks to Jason Mahoney for presenting yesterday during our first CLE of the year. This training covered best practices for our Defenders to protect themselves and their mental health when being exposed to multiple traumatic stories or actions a day. The training also covered ways to ensure Defenders are taking care of themselves as well, discussing ways to add in some self-care in their day. Definitely worth re-watching and you’ll be able to do that soon on our Defender Only Page.

From A Lawyer’s View

Have you read our latest entry on From A Lawyer’s View? If not, click here to catch up!

Next Week!

February 5, 2021, NC CRED is hosting a free virtual symposium beginning at 1 PM. Please click here to register. Here is a brief synopsis of the program:

“First, a panel of historians (Timothy Lovelace, Seth Kotch, and David Cecelski) will describe the historical origins of these modern forms of brutality. Second, a panel of activists and advocates (Dawn Blagrove, Will Elmore, and Henderson Hill) will discuss the ways racial violence is wielded today and the importance of exposing its historical roots. Finally, keynote speaker James Ferguson will offer closing thoughts on how we reckon with racial terror, in all its forms, to end its grip on our nation.

IDS will continue to offer the webinars as part of a more formal series, which will help make it easier for you to attend, while getting CLE credit! This new series will start on Feb. 4.

If you’d like to attend some or all of the programs, please sign up using this link. We look forward to seeing you on the webinars! 

Social Media

NC CRED is now on social media! Follow them

Twitter: https://twitter.com/nc_cred Instagram: https://instagram.com/nc.cred

And don’t forget to follow us! Twitter: https://twitter.com/ncojd Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NCOJD/

HAVE A GREAT WARM WEEKEND!

From A Lawyer’s View: The Kitchen Sink

Over the past several months, attorneys at the Office of the Juvenile Defender, the Wake County Public Defender’s Office, and my office (the Office of the Appellate Defender) have been strategizing on how to challenge automatic transfer from juvenile court to superior court.  One other attorney – Katie Kerr – served as both scribe and generator-of-ideas.  Katie helped move this process along and deserves a great deal of credit for pulling us over the finish line.  The finish line, of course, are new packets for juvenile defenders to challenge automatic transfer from district court to superior court.

The new packets come in two varieties.  One for 13-, 14-, and 15-year-olds and one for 16- and 17-year-olds.  Each packet contains instructions, a motion and a supporting memorandum for district court, and a separation motion and memorandum for superior court. 

Why all the fuss?  There two primary concerns: completeness and waiver. 

Regarding completeness: Those of us who worked on these packets tried to come up with any and all arguments that might convince a court to strike down automatic transfer.  The kitchen sink, you might say.  We might have missed a few arguments, but we included several, including procedural and substantive due process, cruel and unusual punishment, and even the deprivation of the right to counsel.  We don’t know which – if any – of these ideas might work, but we hope that at least one will.

Regarding waiver: Appeals are byzantine.  There are many traps for the unwary, including waiver.  In order to blunt inevitable waiver arguments on appeal, we strongly recommend that you challenge automatic transfer in both juvenile court and adult court.  File the motions and memoranda.  Then, raise all of the arguments orally and get rulings on them all.  As I mentioned above, we might not win on the merits, but we at least want to be able to argue the merits on appeal.

If you have questions about challenging automatic transfer, I encourage you to post them to the juvenile listserv.  I guarantee others will have the same concerns.  And good luck litigating this important issue!

The motions and instructions can be located on the Office of the Juvenile Defender website in the Defender’s Only Section. If you need to obtain access, please contact LaTobia Avent at Latobia.s.avent@nccourts.org


Written by, David Andrews. David W. Andrews is an Assistant Appellate Defender in the North Carolina Office of the Appellate Defender (OAD), a division of the Office of Indigent Defense Services. OAD staff attorneys represent indigent clients in criminal, juvenile delinquency, and involuntary commitment appeals to the Court of Appeals of North Carolina and the Supreme Court of North Carolina.

Week in Review: Jan 11-15

Happy Friday Readers! We have another blog for you, filled with resources and upcoming events AND an OJD sponsored CLE. So get settled in and let’s get started.

TIP OF THE WEEK – RTA EDITION

How Will Secure Custody Hearings Be Different for 16 and 17 Year Olds?

Currently, review of secure custody hearings are held every 10 days after the initial secure custody hearing.  For 16 and 17 year old’s charged with a Class A through G offense, review of secure custody hearings are held every 30 days after the initial secure custody hearing.  However, the hearings may be held every 10 days on motion of the juvenile or the juvenile’s attorney for good cause shown.

Resources

Our very own Assistant Juvenile Defender, Kim Howes wrote a blog on the new YASI tool along with some practical advice and a motion. If you haven’t had a chance to read that blog, please click here.

February 5, 2021, NC CRED is hosting a free virtual symposium beginning at 1 PM. Please click here to register. Here is a brief synopsis of the program:

“First, a panel of historians (Timothy Lovelace, Seth Kotch, and David Cecelski) will describe the historical origins of these modern forms of brutality. Second, a panel of activists and advocates (Dawn Blagrove, Will Elmore, and Henderson Hill) will discuss the ways racial violence is wielded today and the importance of exposing its historical roots. Finally, keynote speaker James Ferguson will offer closing thoughts on how we reckon with racial terror, in all its forms, to end its grip on our nation.

CLE Opportunities

Thursday, January OJD is hosting, Trauma Informed Practice. CLE approval is pending and OJD will cover the cost of the CLE for the first 35 registrants. This will be a 90 minute CLE, from 2:30-4:00 PM.

Presented by Jason T. Mahoney, a Certified Trauma-Centered Family Coach & Certified Group Facilitator, the session provides an in depth look at secondary trauma (Vicarious Trauma). It focuses on professionals who work with youth and families. The training includes an overview of how trauma impacts the brain, development and life functioning. The presenter will provide tools to build resiliency, and will offer other skills and resources to help professionals develop a trauma informed practice.

To register for this CLE, please click this link.

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The NACDL is hosting, Mental Illness & the Law: Addressing and Litigating Behavioral Health Disorders in Criminal Cases, February 24-27. This virtual online training will bring some of the nation’s most experienced lawyers and experts to help you understand these issues, offer ideas and proven solutions to assist you in advocating for your client during trial, whether it be insanity defenses, jury selection, cross of expert witnesses, persuasion, or mitigation at sentencing. To view CLE credit and cost and to register, please click here.

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Lastly, you may know or remember from last year that IDS offered 11 free-to-attend webinars on forensic evidence. This year IDS will continue to offer the webinars as part of a more formal series, which will help make it easier for you to attend, while getting CLE credit! This new series will start on Feb. 4.

If you’d like to attend some or all of the programs, please sign up using the link below. We look forward to seeing you on the webinars! 

2021 IDS Forensic Science Education Series

That’s all for this week Readers, thanks for reading and we’ll catch you next week!

Week in Review: Jan 4-8

Happy New Year Readers! We hope your holiday was relaxing, lazy, and full of what makes you happy. It’s time to get back to work & as always, OJD is here to round up the week.

Tip of the Week

Complaints Received

We are focusing our Tips of the Week on stages of juvenile proceedings that disproportionately impact youth of color. This week we are considering complaints received:

Attorneys are appointed to cases once a complaint is received by juvenile justice, then filed as a complaint.  So generally attorneys can’t impact whether or not a complaint is received.  But attorneys can prevent the case from going to adjudication by:

  • Asking for a dismissal for various reasons, such as the victim no longer wishes to prosecute or the juvenile has already made amends through a mediation program or restitution.
  • Continue the case for an opportunity for the juvenile to participate in a program such as suggested above, or Teen Court if your jurisdiction has one.
  • After an admission, ask the court to informally defer prosecution without an adjudication.  While the Code does not explicitly discuss this, prosecutors have broad discretion to dismiss allegations under N.C.G.S. 7B-2404.  If an adjudication is entered, the court may still “dismiss the case” under 7B-2501(d), in effect not entering a disposition.

Reminders!

  1. You may know or remember from last year that IDS offered 11 free-to-attend webinars on forensic evidence. This year IDS will continue to offer the webinars as part of a more formal series, which will help make it easier for you to attend, while getting CLE credit! This new series will start on Feb. 4.

If you’d like to attend some or all of the programs, please sign up using the link below. We look forward to seeing you on the webinars! 

2. Duke University has only had a handful of responses from NC public defenders, and would really like more so that they can more accurately learn about practices in North Carolina specifically. 

You can find the survey at this link (https://virginia.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3V6Ob2DbXpPl4K9), and it will only take about 10 minutes to complete, and they will mail you a gift-card for your participation. The survey will be closing soon, so please complete it in the next two weeks.

If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to reach out to william.crozier@duke.edu.

3. Have you seen the new Juvenile Code? See a sneak peek below! Thanks to Eric for the picture.

From LaTobia,

I am seeking guest writers for our blog for each month this year, specifically those in juvenile defense or youth advocacy work. Topics will be of your choice, but should include some supporting information such as statutes, cases or graphics. These blogs are geared to help fellow attorneys and create discussion in regards to juvenile proceedings and court processes. Feel free to send me an email at latobia.s.avent@nccourts.org so we can discuss this further or if you’d like to volunteer. Also, feel free to send this message to your colleagues and friends, whoever may be a great contributor. Thanks!

Your 2020 Year in Review

We have reached the Year in Review portion of our weekly reviews! How did we get here so fast?! While this year has been the most challenging, between Zoom & WebEx, crashing technology and “Can you hear me?” ten times a day, everyone has worked so hard to keep our support of #JuvenileJustice strong. So true to tradition we have put together a culmination of what OJD has done throughout the year and it feels like so much :D.

With the tremulous year of 2020 ending, The Office of the Juvenile Defender (OJD) would like to recap how the year unfolded through it all. We’ll review how OJD hired a new Assistant Juvenile Defender, hosted new trainings, managed the first year of Raise the Age (RTA), and produced several materials as required for the second year of the federal OJJDP grant. OJD has worked throughout the year to keep our defenders informed and supported, while working on new ways to serve the state, such as our Regionalization plan.

Activities and Initiatives Since COVID-19 

Since the beginning of the pandemic, OJD has held weekly check-ins to speak about current projects, ways to engage in the community without physical contact, and how to support defenders in the best way through the various projects listed in this report. OJD has been reaching out to defenders in the field, offering support and resources and gathering information to relay to the defender community.  Additionally, we have communicated with other court actors, especially juvenile justice administration, to stay updated with ongoing changes in policies and procedures. We began work on additional pocket guides like the RTA guide released in December. Each guide will highlight a specific area of juvenile delinquency law and provide defender strategies, such as secure custody and adjudication. We also began developing remote training capabilities and plan to pilot trainings during the court closure. Each one of these activities and initiatives will be discussed further below along with updates from the initiatives from 2019.

Raise the Age

              While RTA implementation has been slowed by the impact of COVID on the courts, OJD has been steadily reacting to the impact of the new law: 

  • General consulting on trial and appellate issues 
  • Focusing on specific issues, including indictment procedure and the intersection of bonds with youth in detention 
  • Challenging the “automatic” transfer provisions through motions practice 
  • Working with IDS General Counsel on the development of a comprehensive chart on the appointment/payment/recoupment of attorneys representing transferred juveniles 
  • Participation on the Juvenile Jurisdiction Advisory Committee, with a focus on discussing ongoing conforming changes to the law, as well as the minimum age of juvenile jurisdiction in NC (it is currently 6, the lowest stated age in the U.S.) 

Take a break, settle in and get comfy, and read our 2020 Year in Review here.

Week in Review: Dec 7-11

Hello from another Friday Readers! We’re inching closer and closer to a new year and even closer to cold weather. Hope you’re staying warm and cozy while you keep up the amazing work of juvenile defense or advocating for juvenile rights. And next week, we’ll be recapping what a year 2020 has been within OJD and the NC Court System. See you then!

Raise the Age Tip of The Week

How Do I Know the State Will be Seeking the Gang Enhancement Against My Juvenile?

Under current law, there is no process for notice to the juvenile and the juvenile’s attorney that the state is seeking the gang enhancement.  As the juvenile’s attorney, you should consider the following:

  • Get a copy of the gang assessment from DJJ prior to adjudication
  • Argue that the notice of gang enhancement be presented pre-adjudication
  • Develop a theory of defense against client’s involvement in gang activity
  • Prepare for a hearing on the issue
  • Request a hearing, similar to an adjudicatory hearing
  • Request the court make findings on the record and appeal where  appropriate

ncIMPACTFaceBook Live Event

LaToya Blackmon Powell will be participating in a live panel discussion about School Justice Partnerships, hosted by Anita Brown-Graham, Professor of Public Law and Government and Director of the ncIMPACT initiative at the School of Government. The discussion will be filmed by UNC-TV as a Facebook Live event from 12-1 PM this coming Monday, December 14.

We hope you are able to attend and participate in the virtual discussion and/or share the information with others who may be interested. This is a great opportunity to ask questions and engage in an interactive conversation.

Juvenile Defense Policy and Practice Resource Guide

The National Juvenile Defender Center (NJDC) is pleased to announce the release of their updated Juvenile Defense Policy and Practice Career Resource Guide.  Every year, NJDC updates this guide to provide students and others with valuable resources to jumpstart a career in juvenile defense. NDJC has created this electronic guide to raise the profile of juvenile defense as a career.  It is intended for law students interested in pursuing juvenile defense as a career and includes information on coursework and externships that will help strengthen a candidate’s application in the juvenile defense field; resources to guide in the search for juvenile defense jobs, fellowships, and funding opportunities; and a list of offices around the country that provide employment and internship opportunities specific to juvenile defense. Please feel free to use it as a resource and share with others who may be interested!

Now Seeking 2021 “From a Lawyer’s View”  Guest Bloggers

LaTobia is looking for guest bloggers to contribute to our new series, “From a Lawyer’s View”. Defenders and those in juvenile justice are welcome to write in on topics of their expertise: secure custody, mental health in juveniles, etc! We want to hear from you! We’ll take your tips and blog posts! Reach out to LaTobia here for more information.